Acute Paraproctitis. Review of the Literature

Abstract


Acute anal abscess remains the issue of the day of modern surgery, which is due to, in particular, its occurrence in 0.5% of the population, 0.5-4% of surgical and 10-50% of coloproctological patients. In the article, the analysis of the literature on the etiology, classification, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of acute anal abscess is performed. The review revealed that 98% of acute anal abscess is caused by mixed microflora - staphylococci, streptococci in combination with E. coli. The clinical picture of acute anal abscess depends on the localization of inflammation, the virulence of microflora and the immunoreactivity of the organism. Diagnostic methods of acute anal abscess are finger and bidigital rectal examination, anoscopy, rectal examination with a mirror and rectoromanoscopy. Endorectal electrical thermometry, ultrasonography, abscessography, chromoabscessography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and others can be used as well. Once the diagnosis of acute anal abscess is established, urgent surgical intervention must be performed, which consists of the incision and drainage of abscess with the possible elimination of the opening in the zone of the anal crypt. The postoperative management of patients with acute anal abscess may involve the use of ultrasound, laser, phototherapy, oxygen and ozone therapy, wound dialysis, hydrophonophoresis, multicomponent drugs and others. Thus, as the data in the literature reveals, many questions concerning the management of patients with acute anal abscess are not resolved to the full extent. This is evidenced by the development of inflammatory complications in 13-20%, relapses in 1.5-40%, anal sphincter deficiency in 1.5-27.9% of cases, which makes it worthwhile to continue research on developing new methods of treatments for acute anal abscess

N.N. Burdenko Voronezh State Medical Academy, 10 Studencheskaia Str., Voronezh, 394036, Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: author@vestnik-surgery.com

N.N. Burdenko Voronezh State Medical Academy, 10 Studencheskaia Str., Voronezh, 394036, Russian Federation

Email: author@vestnik-surgery.com

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