Vol 11, No 2 (2018)

Original articles

Does mitral valve repair matter in infants with ventricular septal defect combined with mitral regurgitation?

Kulyabin Y.Y., Soynov I.A., Zubritskiy A.V., Voitov A.V., Nichay N.R., Gorbatykh Y.N., Bogachev-Prokophiev A.V., Karaskov A.M.


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess mitral valve function after repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD) combined with mitral regurgitation (MR) in the mid-term follow-up period, to evaluate the clinical utility of simultaneous mitral valve repair (MVR).

METHODS: From June 2005 to March 2014, 60 patients with VSD and MR underwent surgical treatment. After performing propensity score analysis (1:1) for the entire sample, 46 patients were selected and divided into 2 groups: those with VSD closure and MVR - 23 patients and those with VSD closure without mitral valve intervention - 23 patients. The follow-up period - 32 (28;40) months.

RESULTS: There was no postoperative mortality in either group. There was no significant difference in the duration of the postoperative period between groups. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamping time were significantly longer in the 'VSD + MVR' group (cardiopulmonary bypass, P=0.023; aortic cross-clamp, P< 0.001). There was no significant difference in regurgitation area (P=0.30) and MR grade (P= 0.76) between groups postoperatively. There was no significant difference in freedom from MR ≥ 2+ between groups (log-rank test, P= 0.28). The only significant risk factor for recurrent MR ≥ 2+ during the follow-up period was mild residual MR in the early postoperative period ( P=0.037).

CONCLUSIONS: In infants with VSD combined with MR, simultaneous MVR has no benefits simultaneous MVR provided no advantage over that of isolated VSD closure. We found that the presence of mild residual MR in the early postoperative period predisposes the development of MR ≥ 2+ in follow-up period.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):85-92
pages 85-92 views

New facts about variant anatomy of the arcute line (arcute line by J. Douglas) of the rectus sheats and their importance in herniology

Zakurdaev E.I., Chernyh A.V., Cherednikov E.F., Vetchinkin V.G.


The aim is studying features of topography of the arcuate line of the rectus sheath. 

Materials and methods. There were studied 30 corpses of both sexes without signs of pathology of the anterior abdominal wall. During the autopsy of corpses, the muscular aponeurotic layer of the medial section of the anterior abdominal wall with fragments of the pubic bones, breast and costal arches was taken. Localization of the arcuate line of the rectus sheath in the midline relatively to the umbilical ring and the upper edge of the pubic symphysis was determined on the prepared anatomical preparations.

Results. In this studied autopsy material, the arcuate line of the rectus sheath was located below the umbilical ring in most cases (93%), by the way part of the upper third of the segment from the lower edge of the umbilical ring and the upper edge of the pubic symphysis (50%). In females, the arcuate line of the rectus sheath relative to the umbilical ring was located lower (5,4±0,8 cm), compared to males (3,5±0,7 cm).

Conclusion. The obtained data can be used in performing hernioplasty of variously localized hernias for the prevention of intra- and postoperative complications.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):93-96
pages 93-96 views

About criteria of X-Ray study in chronic palace disease of Bruceur

Nurtdinov M.A., Sufiayrov I.F., Yamalova G.R., Shakirianov A.A.


The problem of determining indications for surgical treatment of adhesive peritoneal disease is relevant in connection with the lack of reliable criteria that allow us to detect intestinal obstruction at early stages. The authors studied the x-ray picture of chronic adhesive peritoneal disease in two groups of patients, without obstruction (6 patients) and in the group of patients with obstruction (5 patients). X-ray computer tomography diagnostics was carried out using the Aquilion RXL, Toshiba Japan, VitreaAdvanced software was used to build the virtual model. For the comparative analysis, nonparametric statistics were used to calculate the Pearson criterion, with the Yates correction. The authors proposed the criteria of X-ray tomographic examination, which allow differentiating the adhesive intestinal obstruction from exacerbation of peritoneal adhesion. To these signs, the authors refer, pneumatized loops of the intestine, the presence of fluid in the lumen of the small intestine, the accumulation of fluid more than 200.0 ml, in two or more areas, thickening of the intestinal wall more than 2.1 mm. It was shown that the use of the developed complex of symptoms in the diagnosis of the disease positively affects the results of surgical treatment.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):97-100
pages 97-100 views

Ultrasonic excision of infected mesh implants after hernioplasty

Panteleev V.S., Zavarukhin V.A., Pogorelova M.P.


Relevance. In hernioplasty, infection of mesh implants is a serious problem, which does not have an unambiguous solution. The surgeon, who decided to remove the failed implant, will face certain technical difficulties associated with the presence of fibrous-granulation melts, which do not allow to perform the operation without injuring healthy tissues around the implant.

The aim is to improve the results of surgical interventions associated with the removal of mesh implants with ultrasonic cavitation.

Methods. We have analyzed our own experience in the treatment of patients who underwent surgery associated with the removal of infected mesh implants previously installed for ventral hernias of different localization in the Republican clinical hospital named after G. G. Kuvatov (Ufa) from 2000 to 2017. The study included 89 patients who were divided into two groups: the main group (41 patients) where ultrasound was used during the stage of implant separation from the abdominal wall tissues and subsequent treatment of the wound surface, and the comparison group (48 patients) in which all stages of the surgical allowance were performed only with using conventional surgical instruments.

Results. The study showed that the using of ultrasound cavitation of the antiseptic solution allows to achieve a delicate separation of infected mesh implants from the abdominal wall without damaging it with a good bactericidal effect, and to reduce the occurrence of recurrent hernias.

Conclusions. Thus, the separation of the mesh implant without damage to the underlying tissues of the abdominal wall allows us to save their frame, and therefore prevent the possible recurrence of hernia.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):101-104
pages 101-104 views

Сomprehensive treatment of the complicated phlegmona of the top limb on the background of sugar diabetes under hiv coinfection and virus hepatitis

Beschastnov V.V., Sizov M.A., Bagryantsev M.V., Tretyakov Y.V., Ryabkov M.G.


Despite the active development and introduction into clinical practice of new groups of antibacterial drugs, the basis for the treatment of purulent-septic diseases of soft tissues is the opening and surgical treatment of a purulent focus. When we analyzing the literature data on the treatment of purulent soft tissue diseases, the following factors can be identified that determine the progression of the purulent-inflammatory process even with an adequately uncovered purulent focus: the presence of common co-morbid diseases that reduce the body's resistance (infectious diseases and metabolic disorders) and attachment to the pathological process multidrug-resistant virulent hospital flora [1, 2]. Progression of the purulent-necrotic process takes place along anatomically determined paths of pus spread, and therefore the absolute necessity of firm knowledge of the topographic anatomy of the human body is obvious. Perhaps the most complete and thorough description of the clinical picture and methods of surgical treatment of phlegmon of the upper limb and thorax, based on anatomical principles, is given in the classic work of V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky [3], since the first publication of which it has been almost a century. Currently, due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance even of "wild" microorganisms, the prevalence among infectious diseases affecting the immune status of the organism (hepatitis, tuberculosis, HIV), as well as the pandemic of diabetes, the urgency of surgical treatment of common purulent processes in the region upper extremity and thorax again increased.

We present the clinical case of progression of the purulent process on the left upper limb from the lower third of the arm in the distal direction to the Pirogov-Paron space and in the proximal direction to the submentoral and pre-lobular cell spaces.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):105-109
pages 105-109 views

The influence of different branches of sciatic and femoral nerves blocks on the postoperative analgesia quality after knee join replacement

Morozov D.V., Boronina I.V., Ryabtseva A.A., Nikulina T.A.


Topicality: knee join replacement is accompanied by intensive pain syndrome. Prolonged blocks of branches of sciatic and femoral nerves the most effective. Apart from sensory block and analgesia some types of blocks cause motor block of lower extremities, particularly quadriceps muscle of thigh which may prevent patients’ mobilization. In this connection, the choice of anesthesia strategy is significant concerning the use of prolonged blocks of the branches of sciatic and femoral nerves maintaining the motor function of the lower extremities with adequate analgesia.

The aim of work: the choice of optimal combination of prolonged blocks of branches of sciatic and femoral nerves ensuring adequate analgesia with motor function of quadriceps muscle of thigh maintenance.

Material and methods: the investigation was carried out in patients undergone knee join replacement according to standard procedure. The operation was performed under combined anesthesia: spinal anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol and midazolam plus prolonged block of tibial nerve and femoral nerve or adductor canal with perineural space catheterization. The block with the use of local anesthetic in the analgesic concentration for postoperative analgesia during 72-hour period after the end of the operation. The patients were divided into the investigation groups according to the combinations of the blocks.

Results and discussion: the combination of block of branches of sciatic and femoral nerves significantly improves the quality of postoperative analgesia on the first postoperative day. The block of adductor canal in comparison with the block of femoral nerve is accompanied by significantly less weakness of quadriceps muscle of thigh at the equal analgesic potency.

Conclusions: maintaining the motor function of quadriceps muscle of thigh with the use of the adductor canal prolonged block for analgesia can be of certain advantage for patients’ mobilization in the early postoperative period.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):110-113
pages 110-113 views

Comperative Evalution of Surgical Methods of Treatment of Transverse Flattened Flat Feet on the AOFAS Scale in Izevsk

Zlobin A.V., Fedorov V.G.


Relevance. Transverse platypodia takes up to 80% of feet deformities, and more than 400 methods for its correction have been developed. The most common in Izhevsk are Shede, Scarf + Akin and the method of Fedorov VG.

Aim: to evaluate the results of these operating tactics on the AOFAS scale.

Materials and methods. The study involved 50 patients, 48 women and 2 men, operated in Republican Clinical Hospital №1 at the Ministry of Health of Udmurtia, the FBHI of Udmurt Republic 'City Clinical Hospital at the Ministry of Health of Udmurtia №6', the FBHI of Udmurt Republic 'City Clinical Hospital at the Ministry of Health of Udmurtia №3' in the period from 2015 to 2016.

Results. Evaluation of treatment results on the AOFAS scale for a period of one year after the operation was: Shede - 65 points, Scarf + Akin - 80 points. While Fedorov's technique with patent number 2517768 is 95 points.

Conclusion. Due to the combination of the above listed classic techniques plus arthrodesis between the medial sphenoid bone and the base of the first and second instep bones, it is possible to achieve the best results.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):114-118
pages 114-118 views

Determination of the effective mode of laser radiation for coagulation of the wall of the Baker cyst in the ex-vivo experiment.

Zhilyakov A.V., Chernyadiev S.A., Aretinsky A.V., Sivkova N.I., Gorbatov V.I., Medvedeva S.J., Korobova N.Y., Chernookov A.I.


Relevance. The Baker's cyst is the most numerous group of benign neoplasms of the popliteal region. The anatomical feature of the location, the vagueness of the etiology and pathogenesis leads to the lack of a single point of view on the tactics of treating popliteal cysts. In modern medical technologies, the method of local laser hyperthermia is often used, when the denaturing of collagen forming the basis of a tissue or an organ is based on surgical treatment. Since this technique does not have direct thermal control over the course of manipulation, it becomes necessary to strictly dosage controlled photocoagulation.

Objectives of the study: to determine the optimal energy and time parameters of direct contact laser action on the wall of the Baker cyst in the simulation of its exo-vivo photocoagulation.

Materials and methods of research. In the experiment we used a wall sample of Baker's cyst, obtained as a result of open extirpation of the cyst. The material was divided into 5 roughly equal in size and mass fragments. The first of them, without any physical effects, was immediately placed in a 10% formalin solution. For all other parts of the preparation, laser irradiation was carried out in a stationary manner with a surface contact of the optical fiber with the synovial layer of the samples. The effect on the fragment was carried out in a constant mode of the light flux with a wavelength of 1.47 μm.

Results. The macroscopic and microscopic transformations that occur in the tissues of the wall of the Baker cyst were studied, with an output power of 5 and 10 W. Two series of experiments were conducted lasting 5 and 10 seconds.

On the surface of the synovial membrane of the wall of Baker's cyst, the effect in the form of point carbonation was observed in all samples subjected to laser treatment. When a microscopic study of a drug not exposed to laser radiation, the synovial membrane was only loosened. In the fragment subjected to the contact action of 10 W laser radiation for 10 seconds, the focus of necrosis of the synovium and surface layers of collagen structures without a perifocal cell reaction is histologically determined. In all other samples, after laser photocoagulation, a focal destruction of the synovial membrane with a pronounced interstitial edema was determined in the histological study. Focal fragmentation of the surface fibers was detected near the loose collagen layers.

Conclusions. The effect of high-energy laser radiation of 1.47 μm on the wall of the Baker cyst in all series of experiments did not lead to its total coagulation necrosis even in the direct irradiation zone. Considering the duration of the cyst of the energy exposure of the irradiation sufficient for the destruction of the wall, and also the small area of exposure of the laser irradiation to the face lightguide, it is evident that a considerable amount of time will be required for complete coagulation of the formation.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):119-125
pages 119-125 views

The Wistar rats' line hemostatic system characteristics to be important for experimental surgery.

Kinzerskiy A.A., Dolgikh V.T., Korzhuk M.S., Kinzerskaya D.A., Zaytseva V.E.


Background. Testing a new method of hemostasis in surgery often goes through the experimental stage. The key point is selecting animals, and eligibility of the obtained experimental results extrapolating to humans. Experimental rats are often used for studying the hemostasis system indicates in modeling various pathologies in surgery. The emergence of the low-frequency piezothromboelastography technique in combination with the coagulogram findings, general blood test, protein C and plasminogen indicators has been able to detail the available knowledge about the hemostasis system at these animals and to help avoiding errors in interpreting the results obtained in the experiment.

Aim. To determine the features of the Wistar line rats’ hemostasis system parameters in comparison with the same human ones being important for experimental surgery.

Materials and methods. The research was conducted on Wistar male rats (n=32) weighing 349 ±33 g (M±σ). Blood was taken from the left carotid artery under conditions of anesthesia with tiletamine / zolazepam (20-40 mg / kg intramuscularly) + xylazine (5-10 mg / kg intramuscularly). Eight seconds before blood without citrate in a volume of 0.45 ml was placed in a cuvette of the LFPTEG technique ARP-01M “Mednord” in settings of which the delta was used to take a maximum point equal to 1, and the waiting time of the curve rising was 20 minutes. The next blood sample was collected in a test tube with 3.8% citrate in a volume of 4.5 ml (9:1) for investigating the fibrinogen level at the Thrombotimer 4 Behnk Elektronik semi-automatic coagulometer, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) values, prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and antithrombin III at the automatic blood coagulation analyzer Sysmex CA 600, and activity of plasminogen and protein C at the semi-automatic Riele 5010 v5 + photometer with a wave length of 405 nm. Studying the hematocrit indicators and determining the platelet count were performed at the automatic hematological analyzer ABX Micros ES 60. The reagents of Ltd "Tekhnologiya standart" were used for detecting the parameters of the hemostasis system. Parameters of the LFPTEG technique for human had been taken from the cited literature, the other indicators had been obtained from 120 healthy adult volunteers. Statistical processing was implemented in the programming language R with using the statistical packages “VIM”, “mice”, “car”, “sm”, “coin”, “boot”. The LFPTEG technique reference values ​​ in rats were refined by the nonparametric bootstrap method. The comparison between the groups was carried out by Mann- Whitney's test and rechecked by the Permutation test with the level p correction for multiple comparisons by the Benjamin-Yekutili method. The α level was assumed to be 0.05 after correction.

Results and Discussion. Most indicators of the rat hemostasis system differed from the same human parameters, except the hematocrit (p3=0.84, p4=0.98) indicator, and the lysis intensity, and retraction of the clot (p3=0.15, p4=0.067) indices. The I-II coagulation phases were increased at the background of decreasing protein C activity by 29%, increasing the number of platelets and their activity by 69% and 79%, intensification of thrombin activity and acceleration of its formation by 35% and 30% in a rat compared to a person. At the III phase of coagulation the proteolytic stage was noted to become intensified by 37% and the polymerization to become weakened by 44%. The clotting time was shortened by 29%, and the thrombin time was prolonged by 64% that did not contradict the coefficient growth of total anticoagulant blood activity (TAAC) by 62%. Other indicators have clinically differed a little.

Conclusion. The Wistar line rats’ haemostasis system is very similar to human one except significant increasing of the I-II coagulation phases, the III proteolytic phase, and significant weakening of its polymerization stage probably due to increasing the plasmin system activity, the anticoagulant blood activity at this stage, and decreasing the fibrinogen level. Rats evolutionarily must be considered to be better suited to stop bleeding after trauma while performing a surgical experiment.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):126-133
pages 126-133 views

Review of literature

Modern possibilities of reconstructive plastic surgery of breast cancer

Ivanov Y.V., Sharobaro V.I., Panchenkov D.N., Khabarov Y.A., Astakhov D.A.


The surgical stage of treatment remains the main one in the complex therapy of breast cancer. The review of modern reconstructive plastic surgery, performed by single-step and delayed after radical mastectomy, is presented. Against the background of a huge number of existing methods of breast reconstruction, three main types have become the most popular among surgeons to date: the use of own tissues, silicone endoprosthesis and their combination. The final choice of the option of breast reconstruction depends on the volume of cancer surgery, plastic tissue, somatic condition of the patient and her desire. Reconstructive plastic surgery for breast cancer does not affect the course of the disease and are not an obstacle to chemotherapy.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):134-143
pages 134-143 views

Преподавание хирургии

The Use of Simulation Technologies in the Formation of the Basic Skills of Videoendoscopic Surgery in Clinical Residents Enrolled in Training Programs for Surgical Specialists

Glukhov A.A., Boev S.N., Andreev A.A., Ostroushko A.P.


Wide introduction of videoendosurgical technologies in all surgical specialties has become a challenge for teachers of medical universities. According to many authors, the use of virtual simulators proved to be unjustified, which compelled us to conduct a study to determine the place of virtual endosurgical simulators in the training program of a specialist of surgical profile. The experiment involved 36 clinical residents who took the training simulation course (108 hours) in the training virtual clinic (simulation training center) of VSMU N. N. Burdenko during 2016-2017. Students were divided into two groups. In the first group, classes were held on the Gross-SMITH simulators, equipped with simulators of laparoscopes ending with cameras with options axis angle 0 and 30 degrees. In the second group, classes were held on a virtual simulator with tactile backlink LapVR. At the end of the course, each resident was asked to do control exercise – to stitch pig's stomach, which had a wound with two markings indicating where to lead the needle. Videoendosurgical simulator Gross-SMITH was used to perform a control exercise. The results of the study confirmed the effectiveness of the use of virtual endosurgical simulators with tactile backlink in the formation of the basic skills of videoendoscopic surgery. The formation of the skill of tying an intracorporal knot proved to be more effective in training with the use of videoendosurgical simulators Gross-SMITH and real surgical instruments.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):144-148
pages 144-148 views


Yuri Fedorovich ISAKOV - academician of the USSR Academy of medical Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences, three times laureate of the State prizes, chief pediatric surgeon of the USSR and the Russian Federation, Deputy Minister of health of the USSR (to the 95th anniversary from birthday)

Andreev A.A., Ostroushko A.P.


Yuri F. Isakov was born in 1923 in the city of Kovrov of the Vladimir region. He participated in the great Patriotic war. In 1951 he graduated from the medical faculty, Isakov was attending physician (1951-1953) and post – graduate student of Department of pediatric surgery of the 2nd Moscow medical Institute. In 1955 he defended his Ph.D. thesis on the topic "Intravenous and intraosseous anesthesia in operations on the extremities in children", in 1963 – his doctoral thesis on the topic: "Hirschsprung's disease in children (pathogenesis, clinic, treatment)". He became Professor in 1964 and head of the Department of surgical diseases of childhood of the 2nd Moscow medical Institute in 1966. Isakov was appointed chief pediatric surgeon, head of the Main Department of educational institutions of the Ministry of health of the USSR. A number of progressive reforms were held under his leadership including biennial specialisation, adapted to the tasks of practical health care curricula, was introduced. The all-Union children's surgical centre was created by Isakov' initiative. Since 1981, Yuri F. Isakov was Deputy Minister of health of the USSR, 1989 – Vice-President of Academy of medical Sciences of the USSR (later the Russian Academy of medical Sciences). He was chief pediatric surgeon of the Ministry of health of Russia from 1993 to 2005. He was Chairman of the Presidium of the Russian Association of pediatric surgeons, the Bureau of the scientific Council on pediatric surgery of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation and the Russian Academy of medical Sciences, editor-in-chief of the journal "Pediatric surgery", Advisor of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of medical Sciences. Yuri Isakov is the author of over 400 scientific works, including 23 monographs, 8 textbooks and manuals, 12 inventions. Yuri F. Isakov died on August 4, 2016 in Moscow.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):149-149
pages 149-149 views

PETROVSKY Boris Vasilievich – academician of RAS and RAMS, the Minister of health of the USSR, Director of all-Union scientific center of surgery, AMS USSR (to the 110 anniversary from the birthday)

Andreev A.A., Ostroushko A.P.


Petrovsky Boris Vasilievich (1908-2004) - Doctor of Medicine, Professor, Honored Scientist of the RSFSR (1957), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1966) and RAMS (1957), Minister of Health of the USSR (1965-1980), Director of the All-Union Scientific Center for Surgery Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR, Hero of Socialist Labor (1968), laureate of Lenin (1960) and State Prizes of the USSR (1971).

After graduating from the Medical Faculty of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, he worked as a surgeon in the district hospital, the head of the health center of the plant in Podolsk (1931), the junior doctor of the tank brigade and infirmary in Naro-Fominsk (1932), an intern, an assistant, a senior research fellow at the Moscow Oncology Institute and a clinic general surgery at Moscow State University (since 1938). He defended his thesis in 1937. In 1938, B.V. Petrovsky was given the title of senior research fellow (assistant professor). Boris Vasilievich was the deputy head of the field hospital, the leading surgeon of the Karelian Front (1939-1940), a senior researcher at the Moscow Oncological Institute (1940-1941), assistant professor of general surgery at the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute. N.I. Pirogov (1941). From the first days of WWII B.V. Petrovsky was the leading surgeon of hospitals in the Western, Bryansk and the 2nd Baltic fronts. In the years 1944-1945. B.V. Petrovsky worked as a senior lecturer in the Department of Faculty Surgery of the Military Medical Academy named after C.M. Kirov in Leningrad. He was Deputy Director for Scientific Research Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1945-1948. In 1946 he was the first in the USSR who to perform successful operations for esophageal cancer with its one-horn intrathoracic plasty. In 1947, B.V. Petrovsky defended his doctoral dissertation. He was Professor of the Department of General Surgery of 2nd Moscow Medical Institute N.I. Pirogov in1948-1949, and later (in 1949-1951) B.V. Petrovsky became a Director of the Department of Hospital Surgery, Head of the 3rd Surgical Clinic of the University of Budapest. He was Head of the Department of Faculty Surgery of the 2nd Moscow Medical Institute. N.I. Pirogov in the years 1951-1956. In 1953 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. B. Petrovsky was a Chief Surgeon of the 4th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR from 1953 to 1965. Since 1955, B.V. Petrovsky - deputy chairman, since 1965 - chairman of the All-Union Scientific Society of Surgeons. Since 1956 - Head of the Department of Hospital Surgery and Director of the State Hospital Surgical Clinic of the Medical Faculty of the 1st Moscow Medical Institute. In 1957, B.V. Petrovsky was elected a full member of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR and he was awarded the honorary title of Honored Worker of Science of the RSFSR and Azerbaijan SSR. In 1960 he was awarded the Lenin Prize for the development and implementation of new operations on the heart and large vessels. In 1963 he was Organizer and Director (1963-1988), since 1989 - Honorary Director of the All-Union Scientific Center of Surgery of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. In 1964, B.V. Petrovsky performed the first successful operation for prosthetics of the mitral valve of the heart with a mechanical (seamless) fixation. In 1965, for the first time in the USSR, he successfully performed kidney transplantation to man. He was Minister of Health of the USSR from 1965 to 1980. He was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1966. He was awarded the State Prize of the USSR for the development and introduction into clinical practice of kidney transplantation in 1971. In 1979, he was chairman of the Scientific Surgical Council under the Presidium of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR. B.V. Petrovsky was a delegate to the XXII, XXIII, XXIV and XXV Congresses of the CPSU (1961, 1966, 1971, 1976), Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1962-1984), candidate member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (1966, 1971, 1976). He died on May 4, 2004, at the age of 96.

B.V. Petrovsky was honorary member of 14 foreign scientific medical societies, honorary doctor of 8 universities. He was awarded 16 orders and 8 medals, including the Orders of the Red Star (1942), Lenin (1961, 1965, 1968, 1978), the Second World War (1943, 1985), the October Revolution (1971), Friendship of Peoples (1993), "For Services to the Fatherland" II degree (1998), St. Andrew the Apostle (2003). He was a Laureate of the Lenin (1960) and State Prizes of the USSR (1971), the International Leonard Bernard Prize (1975) and others. B.V. Petrovsky is author over 500 scientific works, including 40 monographs. He created one of the largest scientific surgical schools.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):150-150
pages 150-150 views

LEVIT Vladimir Semenovich – doktor meditsinskikh nauk, professor, zasluzhennyy deyatel' nauki RSFSR, vydayushchiysya khirurg, dekan meditsinskogo fakul'teta Irkutskogo universiteta, general-mayor meditsinskoy sluzhby

Andreev A.A., Ostroushko A.P.


Vladimir Semyonovich Levit was born in 1883. He studied at the Medical Faculty of the University of Konigsberg (1901-1906). In 1914, Vladimir Semenovich defended his doctoral dissertation, became head of the surgical department of the Simbirsk Province Hospital, and began teaching at a paramedic school. V.S. Levit was elected privat-docent of the faculty surgical clinic of Tomsk University (1919), privat-docent (1922), then professor and head of the department of the faculty surgical clinic, dean of the medical faculty (1922-1926) of Irkutsk University, head of the department of hospital surgery of medical faculty of 2nd Moscow University (since 1926), which was headed for 27 years. V.S. Levit for the first time in the USSR successfully resected cardia (1928), surgery for hernia of the esophageal aperture (1929). He was awarded the title of Honored Scientist of the RSFSR in 1936. During the Great Patriotic War V.S. Levit was appointed chief surgeon of the Moscow Military District, deputy chief surgeon of the Soviet Army (1942), and in 1943 he became a major general of the medical service. Since 1950, V.S. Levit was chief surgeon of the Central Military Hospital named after P.V. Mandrik. He published 120 scientific works, he was the editor of 3-volume manual, 2-volume textbook on surgery, the surgical section of the Great Medical Encyclopedia, the publication "The Experience of Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945." V.S. Levit was the editor of the magazine "Soviet Surgery" (later "Surgery") (1931-1953), a member of the editorial board of the journals "New Surgery", "Russian Clinic", "Central Medical Journal." He was the head and scientific consultant in the preparation of 23 Ph.D. and 10 doctoral dissertations. V.S. Levit was a member of the International Surgical Society, chairman of the Moscow Surgical Society, a member of the Academic Council of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, and district Soviets of Working People's Deputies. V.S. Leviticus was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, the Patriotic War of the 2nd degree, the Red Star, medals. V.S. Leviticus died in 1961 in Moscow.

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):151-151
pages 151-151 views

William GARVEY - founder of modern physiology and embryology (to the 440th anniversary of his birth and 400th anniversary from the day of opening of the circulation)

Andreev A.A., Ostroushko A.P.


William Harvey was born in 1578 in Folkston. After leaving private elementary school, William continued his education in the Royal school of Canterbury, Cambridge and Padua universities. He received the degree of doctor of medicine in 1602, but in 1603, the second doctoral degree at Cambridge University and a license to practice a medical practice in England. In 1604, he was elected a candidate, and in 1607 – a member of the Royal College of physicians, later takes up the chair of anatomy and surgery, where she worked until death. In 1609, Harvey became the Junior, and later chief physician of the hospital of St. Bartholomew's in London. In 1618 William Harvey becoming court physician of James I, and in 1832 Charles I. William was appointed Dean of Merton College (Oxford) in 1645. In 1646 Garvey returned to London, where he devoted himself entirely to his studies. He first presented his thoughts about blood circulation at a lecture he gave in London in 1618, and published its in 1628. Garvey's research has revealed the importance of the pulmonary circulation and found that the heart is a muscular organ which provides the injection of blood into the circulatory system. In 1651, he published his second treatise "Studies on the origin of animals," which first formulated the theory of epigenesis. He stated and substantiated the idea that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. In 1654 Harvey was unanimously elected President of the London medical College, but for health reasons, refuses the position. Harvey died in 1657 and was buried in the town of Hempstead (Essex).

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Surgery. 2018;11(2):152-152
pages 152-152 views

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